Lecture 12 — Controlling Loops¶
- We will see how to control both for and while loops with
- We will see different range functions
- We will write many example programs
Reading: Practical Programming, rest of Chapter 7.
Part 1: The Basics¶
forloops tend to have a fixed number of iterations computed at the start of the loop
whileloops tend to have an indefinite termination, determined by the conditions of the data
- Most Python
forloops are easily rewritten as
whileloops, but not vice-versa.
- In other programming languages,
whileare almost interchangeable, at least in principle.
- In other programming languages,
Part 1: Ranges¶
A range is a function to generate a list of integers. For example,
>>> range(10) [0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9]
Notice this is up through and not including the last value specified!
If we want to start with something other than 0, we provide the starting values
>>> range(3,8) [3, 4, 5, 6, 7]
We can create increments. For example,
>>> range(4,20,3) [4, 7, 10, 13, 16, 19]
starts at 4, increments by 3, stops when 20 is reached or surpassed.
We can create backwards increments
>>> range(-1, -10, -1) [-1, -2, -3, -4, -5, -6, -7, -8, -9]
Using Ranges in For Loops¶
We can use the
rangeto generate the list of values in a for loop. Our first example is printing the contents of the
planets = [ 'Mercury', 'Venus', 'Earth', 'Mars', 'Jupiter', 'Saturn', 'Uranus', 'Neptune', 'Pluto' ] for i in range(len(planets)): print planets[i]
iis variously known as the indexor the loop index variableor the subscript.
We will modify the loop in class to do the following:
- Print the indices of the planets (starting at 1!)
- Print the planets backward.
- Print every other planet.
Loops That Do Not Iterate Over All Indices¶
Sometimes the loop index should not go over the entire range of indices, and we need to think about where to stop it early, as the next example shows.
Example: Returning to our example from Lecture 1, we will briefly re-examine our solution to the following problem: Given a string, how can we write a function that decides if it has three consecutive double letters?
def has_three_doubles(s): for i in range(0, len(s)-5): if s[i] == s[i+1] and s[i+2] == s[i+3] and s[i+4] == s[i+5]: return True return False
We have to think carefully about where to start our looping and where to stop!
Part 1 Exercises¶
Generate a range for the positive integers less than 100. Use this to calculate the sum of these values, with and without a for loop.
Use a range and a for loop to print the even numbers less than a given integer
Suppose we want a list of the squares of the digits 0..9. The following does NOT work
squares = range(10) for s in squares: s = s*s
Why not? Write a different for loop that uses indexing into the
squareslist to accomplish our goal.
The following code for finding out if a word has two consecutive double letters is wrong. Why? When, specifically, does it fail?
def has_two_doubles(s): for i in range(0, len(s)-5): if s[i] == s[i+1] and s[i+2] == s[i+3]: return True return False
A local maximum, or peak, in a list is a value that is larger than the values next to it. For example,
L = [ 10, 3, 4, 9, 19, 12, 15, 18, 15, 11, 14 ]
has local maxima at indices 4 and 7. (Note that the beginning and end values are not considered local maxima.) Write code to print the index and the value of each local maximum.
Part 2: Nested Loops¶
Some problems require iteratingover either
- two dimensions of data, or
- all pairs of values from a list
As an example, here is code to print all of the products of digits:
digits = range(10) for i in digits: for j in digits: print "%d x %d = %d" %(i,j,i*j)
How does this work?
- for each value of i the variable in the first, or “outer”, loop,
- Python executes the entire second, or “inner”, loop
We will look at finding the two closest points in a list.
Example: Finding the Two Closest Points¶
Suppose we are given a list of point locations in two dimensions, where each point is a tuple. For example,
points = [ (1,5), (13.5, 9), (10, 5), (8, 2), (16,3) ]
Our problem is to find the two points that are closest to each other.
The natural idea is to compute the distance between any two points and find the minimum.
- We can do this with and without using a list of distances.
Let’s work through the approach to this and post the result on the Piazza site.
Exercise: Nested vs. Sequential Loops¶
The following simple exercise will help you understand loops better. Show the output of each of the following pairs of
forloops. The first two pairs are nested loops, and the third pair is formed by consecutive, or sequential, loops.
# Version 1 sum = 0 for i in range(10): for j in range(10): sum += 1 print sum
# Version 2 sum = 0 for i in range(10): for j in range(i+1,10): sum += 1 print sum
# Version 3 sum = 0 for i in range(10): sum += 1 for j in range(10): sum += 1 print sum
Exercise: Modifying Images¶
- It is possible to access the individual pixels in an image as a two
dimensional array. This is similar to a list of lists, but is written slightly differently: we use
pix[i][j]to access a point at location
(i,j)of the image.
Here is a code that copies one image to another, pixel by pixel.
from PIL import Image im = Image.open("bolt.jpg") w,h = im.size newim = Image.new("RGB", (w,h), "white") pix = im.load() ## creates an array of pixels that can be modified newpix = newim.load() ## creates an array of pixels that can be modified for i in range(0,w): for j in range(0,h): newpix[i,j] = pix[i,j] newim.show()
- Modify the above code so that:
- The image is flipped left to right
- The image is flipped top to bottom
- You introduce a black line of size 10 pixels in the middle of the image horizontally and vertically.
- Now, scramble the image by shifting the four quadrants of the image clockwise.
- If you want some additional challenge, try these:
- Pixellate the image, but taking any block of 8 pixels and replacing all the pixels by their average r,g,b value.
Part 3: Controlling Execution of Loops¶
- We can control while loops through use of
- We need to be careful to avoid infinite loops
Using a Break¶
We can terminate a loop immediately upon seeing the 0 using Pythons
sum = 0 while True: x = int( raw_input("Enter an integer to add (0 to end) ==> ")) if x == 0: break sum += x print sum
breaksends the flow of control immediately to the first line of code
outside the current loop, and
The while condition of
Trueessentially means that the only way to stop the loop is when the condition that triggers the
Continue: Skipping the Rest of a Loop¶
Suppose we want to skip over negative entries in a list. We can do this by telling Python to
continuewhen it sees a blank line:
for item in mylist: if item < 0: continue print item
When it sees
continue, Python immediate goes back to the
whilecondition and re-evaluates it, skipping the rest of the loop.
Any loop that uses
continuecan be rewritten without either of these.
- Therefore, we choose to use them only if they make our code clearer.
- A loop with more than one continue or more than one break is often unclear!
This particular example is probably better without the
- Usually when we use
continuethe rest of the loop would be much longer, with the condition that triggers the
continuetested right at the time preferably at the top of the loop.
- Usually when we use
Part 3 Exercises¶
Given two lists
L2measuring the daily weights (floats) of two rats write a
whileloop to find the first day that the weight of rat 1 is greater than that of rat 2.
Do either of the following examples cause an infinite loop?
import math x = float(raw_input("Enter a positive number -> ")) while x > 1: x = math.sqrt(x) print x
import math x = float(raw_input("Enter a positive number -> ")) while x >= 1: x = math.sqrt(x) print x
rangeis used to generate a list of indices in a
- At each iteration of a
forloop, a value from a list is copied to a variable automatically. Do not change this value yourself.
- While loops are needed especially when the termination conditions must be determined during the loop’s computation.
- Both for loops and while loops may be controlled using break and continue, but don’t overuse these.
- While loops may become “infinite”
- Use a debugger to understand the behavior of your program and to find errors.