The purpose of this assignment is to help you set up your development environment, get acquainted with Java, and introduce you to tools we will be using throughout the rest of this class.

If you would like to get more practice with Java, then we recommend trying Oracle's Java tutorials we mention under Problem 4. Try to complete Homework 0 first, so you can use the tools we describe here when doing the examples in Oracle's tutorial.

If you are having trouble with this assignment, get in touch with us immediately so we can get you back on track.

Getting Started

In what follows, we assume that you have Eclipse and Git properly installed, and you have checked out project csci2600-hw0. If you encountered problems, please contact the TAs or the instructors immediately.

Throughout the course you will receive starter code and submit your assignments through Git. Git is a version control system that allows software engineers to backup, manage, and collaborate on large software projects.

The instructions in the Setup handout outline basic Git commands, Eclipse, and JUnit. Throughout this homework we explain Git commands, Eclipse, and JUnit in context.

Problem 1: Your first Java class — RandomHello

Create your Java class with a main method that will randomly choose and then print to the console one of five possible greetings that you define.

Create the file RandomHello.java, which will define a Java class named RandomHello that will reside in the Java package hw0. (Assuming your repository is checked into csci-2600/hw0, the file name would be csci-2600/hw0/src/main/java/hw0/RandomHello.java.) To create a new Java class file, go to Package Explorer and select package hw0 under the src/main/java, then select File -> New -> Class. Specify the enclosing package hw0 and class name RandomHello.

Java requires every runnable class to contain a main method whose signature is public static void main(String[] args). A code skeleton for the RandomHello class is shown below. Eclipse will generate some of this skeleton for you when you create the new RandomHello class. Add a public method called getGreeting() as shown below.

RandomHello.java:

package hw0;



/**

 * RandomHello selects a random greeting to display to the user.

 */

public class RandomHello {



    /**

     * Uses a RandomHello object to print

     * a random greeting to the console.

     */

    public static void main(String[] argv) {

        RandomHello randomHello = new RandomHello();

        System.out.println(randomHello.getGreeting());

    }



    /**

     * @return a random greeting from a list of five different greetings.

     */

    public String getGreeting() {

        // YOUR CODE GOES HERE

    }

}

This skeleton is meant only to serve as a starting point; you are free to organize it as you see fit.

No Need to Reinvent the Wheel

Don't write your own random number generator to decide which greeting to select. Instead, take advantage of Java's Random class. (This is a good example of the adage "Know and Use the Libraries" as described in Chapter 7 of Joshua Bloch's Effective Java. Learning the libraries will take some time, but it's worth it!)

Type the following into the body of your getGreeting() method:

Random randomGenerator = new Random();

This line creates a random number generator; not a random number, but a Java object that can generate random numbers. In Eclipse, your code may be marked as an error by a red underline. This is because the Random class is defined in a package that has not yet been imported. java.lang and hw0 are the only packages that are implicitly imported. Java libraries are organized as packages and you can only access Java classes in packages that are imported. To import java.util.Random, add the following line under the line package hw0; at the top of your file (after the package hw0; declaration):

import java.util.Random;

This will import the class Random into your file. To automatically add all necessary imports and remove unused imports, Eclipse lets you type CTRL-SHIFT-O to Organize your imports. Because there is only one class named Random, Eclipse will figure out that you mean to import java.util.Random and will add the above line of code automatically. If the name of the class to be imported is ambiguous — for example, there is a java.util.List as well as a java.awt.List — then Eclipse will prompt you to choose the one to import.

Using java.util.Random

Read the documentation for Random's nextInt(int n) method by going to the Java API and selecting Random from the list of classes in the left-hand frame. Many classes also allow you to pull up documentation directly in Eclipse. Just hover over the class or method name and press SHIFT+F2.

Use the nextInt(int n) method to choose your greeting. You don't have to understand all the details of its behavior specification, only that it returns a random number from 0 to n-1.

One way to choose a random greeting is using an array. This approach might look something like:

String[] greetings = new String[5];

greetings[0] = "Hello, World";

greetings[1] = "Hola Mundo";

greetings[2] = "Bonjour, le Monde";

greetings[3] = "Hallo Welt";

greetings[4] = "Ciao Mondo";

The main method in the skeleton code above prints the value returned by getGreeting. So if you insert code in getGreeting to select a greeting randomly, when the class is run it will print that greeting.

When you are finished writing your code and it compiles, run it several times to ensure that all five greetings can be displayed. To run select RandomHello.java in Package Explorer and then choose Run -> Run from the main menu, or right-click on RandomHello.java in Package Explorer, then select Run As -> Java Application.

Next, add your new file to version control, commit it into your local repository, and push to the repository on the server. Follow the Setup handout for the relevant Git commands.

For Problems 2-4, DO NOT edit files with test cases: FibonacciTest.java, BallTest.java, BallContainerTest.java, and BoxTest.java. If you do, you may make all your test cases run successfully on your local machine. However, when you submit your assignment to Submitty, we will be using our own original copies of all test cases for autograding, not the ones you might have committed to your repository. It might lead to your code failing some or all the test cases on Submitty despite the fact that the entire test suite ran successfully on your local machine.

Problem 2: Testing Java Code with JUnit

Part of your job as a software engineer is to verify that the software you produce works according to its specification. One form of verification is testing. JUnit is a framework for creating unit tests in Java. A unit test is a test for verifying that a given method in a class conforms to its specification. In this problem, we will provide you with a quick overview and simple example of how JUnit works. (Later homeworks will look more deeply into unit testing.)

Open both src/main/java/hw0/Fibonacci.java and src/test/java/hw0/FibonacciTest.java. From the comments, you can see that FibonacciTest is a test of the Fibonacci class.

Now run FibonacciTest. Right-click on FibonacciTest.java, then select Run As -> JUnit test. If you donít see Run As -> JUnit test when you right-click, right-click on the project name in the Package Explorer and select Properties. Select Java Build Path, and click the Add Library button. Select Junit and click Next. Select Junit 4 (not Junit 5) and click Finish. Click the Apply and Close button.

A window or panel with a menacing red bar will appear, indicating that some of the tests in FibonacciTest did not complete successfully. The top pane displays the list of tests that failed, while the bottom pane shows the Failure Trace for the highlighted test. The first line in the Failure Trace should display an error message that explains why the test failed. It is the responsibility of the author of the test code to produce this error message.

If you click on the failure testThrowsIllegalArgumentException(), the bottom pane will switch to the appropriate error message. In this example, the first line of the failure trace shows that Fibonacci.java improperly threw an IllegalArgumentException when tested with zero (0) as its argument. (You may have to scroll the pane to the right to see this). If you double-click on the name of a test in the top pane, Eclipse will jump to the line where the failure occurred in the editor pane. Figure out the problem in Fibonacci.java, fix it, and rerun the JUnit test. Eclipse will automatically rebuild when you make changes.

Use the information in the Failure Trace box to help you continue debugging Fibonacci. Keep a record of what you did to debug Fibonacci as you will have to answer questions about your debugging experience in the next problem. After you have fixed all the problems in Fibonacci, you should see a bright green bar instead of a red one when you run FibonacciTest.

Problem 3: Answering Questions About the Code

In a newly created text file problem3.txt answer some questions about the Fibonacci class. Most programming homework assignments that you will be given will require you to submit some sort of a response or write-up in addition to your code. Follow these instructions below to create a text file, named answers/problem3.txt, with answers to the following questions:

  1. Why did Fibonacci fail the testThrowsIllegalArgumentException test? What did you have to do to fix it?

  2. Why did Fibonacci fail the testBaseCase test? What (if anything) did you have to do to fix it?

  3. Why did Fibonacci fail the testInductiveCase test? What (if anything) did you have to do to fix it?

Creating New Text files

Select File -> New -> File or File -> New -> Untitled Text File. In the resulting dialog box, choose the answers folder as the parent folder of your new file and name the file problem3.txt

Problem 4: Getting a Real Taste of Java — Balls and Boxes

Until now, we have only been introducing tools. In this problem, we will delve into a real programming exercise. If you are not familiar with Java, we recommend working through the Oracle's Learning the Java Language tutorial. Skip the section on generics for now. Fragments of Oracle's other tutorials may also be useful, specifically "Getting Started", "Essential Java Classes", and "Collections".

This problem is intended to give you a better sense of what Java programming entails. This problem can be somewhat challenging. Don't be discouraged, we're here to help. And we expect that time spent now will pay off significantly during the rest of the course.

As you work on this problem, record your answers to the various questions in problem4.txt in the project's answers folder.

  1. Warm-Up: Creating a Ball:

    Take a look at src/main/java/hw0/Ball.java. A Ball is a simple object that has the volume and the color.

    We have included a JUnit test called src/test/java/hw0/BallTest.java to help you out. In Eclipse, one of its warnings should help you find at least one of the bugs without referring to the JUnit results. Warnings are indicated by a small yellow marker to the left of the line number. Moving the mouse over the marker will show you the warning. Clicking on the marker will give you hints about possible ways to modify the code to resolve the warning.

  2. Using Pre-Defined Data Structures:

    Next, we want to create a class called BallContainer. As before, skeleton code is provided (see BallContainer.java). A BallContainer is a container for Balls. BallContainer must support the following methods and your task is to fill in the code that will implement all these methods correctly:

    The specifications for these methods are found in the code of BallContainer.java.

    In BallContainer, we use a java.util.Set to keep track of the balls. This is a great example of using a predefined Java data structure to save yourself significant work.

    Before implementing each method, read the documentation for Set. Some of your methods will be as simple as calling the appropriate predefined methods for the Set. To help you out, we included a JUnit test called src/test/java/hw0/BallContainerTest.java.

    Before you start coding, please take time to think about the following question which you need to answer in the text file:

    There are two obvious approaches to implementing getVolume():
    Which approach do you think is the better one? Why? Include your answer in problem4.txt.
  3. Implementing a Box:

    In this problem, you will do a little more design and thinking and a little less coding. You will implement the Box class. A Box is also a container for Balls. The key difference between a Box and a BallContainer is that a Box has only finite volume. Once a box is full, we cannot put in more Balls. The size (volume) of a Box is defined when the constructor is called:

    public Box(double volume);

    Since a Box is in many ways similar to a BallContainer, we internally keep track of many things in the Box with a BallContainer, allowing us to reuse code. Many of the methods in Box can simply "delegate" to the equivalent in BallContainer; for example, removing from a Box cannot cause it to exceed its volume limit. This design of having one class contain an object of another class and reusing many of the latter class's methods is called composition.

    Optional Note: If you are familiar with Java, you may wonder why we did not simply make Box extend BallContainer via "inheritance"; that is, why did we not make Box a subclass of BallContainer. We will discuss this much more deeply later in the course, but the key idea is that Box is not what we call a true subtype of BallContainer because it is in fact more limited than BallContainer. A Box can only hold a limited amount; hence, a user who uses a BallContainer in their code can not simply substitute a BallContainer with a Box and assume the same behavior in the program. The code may cause the Box to fill up, but they did not have this concern when using a BallContainer. For this reason, it is not a good idea to make Box extend BallContainer.

    In addition to the constructor described above, you will need to implement the following new methods in Box:

    The specifications for these methods can be found in the code of Box.

    A few things to consider before you start writing code:

    Also, take some time to answer the following questions in your text file:

    There is no single correct answer. Our intent is to help you fight that urge to code up the first thing that comes to mind. Remember: More thinking, less coding.

Problem 5: Turning In Your Homework

Each homework will indicate exactly what you need to turn in a Section entitled What to Turn In (see below).

Make sure that you have added all new files to version control (e.g., RandomHello.java, answers/problem3.txt, and answers/problem4.txt) by right clicking on the file name in the Eclipse Project Explorer and selecting Team/Add to Index. In Eclipse, right-click on project csci2600-hw0, then select Team -> Commit to commit all changes. Don't forget to push into the remote repository on the server: right-click on project csci2600-hw0, then select Team -> Push to Upstream.

After completing these steps, all your code and materials to turn in should be in your Git repository on the server. Proceed to the Submitty to complete the submission of the assignment!

IMPORTANT: Make sure that you have the correct folder structure. If you break the structure, compilation on the Submitty server will fail resulting in a grade of 0. At this point, you must have project csci2600-hw0 with subfolders src,  answers,  and docs. Folder src must have subfolders main and test each of which, in turn, must have subfolders java and resources. Folders named java must have subfolders hw0. These show as hw0 subfolders of src/test/java and src/main/java in Package Explorer. Java classes (e.g., Ball.java) must be in src/main/java/hw0, your text files (problem3.txt and problem4.txt) must be in answers and all JUnit test classes (e.g., BallTest.java) must be in src/test/java/hw0.

You must click the Grade My Repository button for you answers to be graded. If you do not, they will not be graded and you will receive a zero for this homework.

What to Turn In

We should be able to find the following folders and files in your csci2600-hw0 folder:

Grade Breakdown

This homework is worth 50 points. Submitty server runs the provided JUnit tests plus a few additional tests. Test and debug your code in Eclipse before committing and submitting to Submitty! If your code passes all tests in Eclipse, then chances are it will pass them on the Submitty server, too.

Parts of this homework are derived from University of Washington's Software Design and Implementation course.